Nathan Young Ph.D.
Evolution and Development of the Craniofacial Skeleton
- Tel; (415) 206-5362
- Email: email@example.com
My background is in biological anthropology, a field that seeks to understand how uniquely human features evolved. Although I'm interested in the body as a whole, a major focus of my current research is the evolution of and development of the face. To do this I employ two different approaches. In the first I utilize a "bottom up" approach to understand how the embryonic face attains its shape, and the role variation in genetic and molecular factors contributes to differences in adult form. This kind of research has clinical implications, since disruptions to normal development often lead to craniofacial birth defects, and these often express a range of severity that has been previously difficult to predict and understand. In the second, I take a "top down" approach, analyzing variation in human facial form to understand the process of growth, and the developmental factors that contribute to variation among individuals. The ultimate goal of this research is to understand the genetics behind variation in facial shape and growth, and apply this information in clinical contexts to "personalize" individual prognoses.
Hu D, YOUNG NM, Hallgrímsson B, Marcucio RS. in review. Signals from the brain induce variation in avian facial shape. Evolution.
YOUNG NM, Hu D, Lainoff AJ, Smith F, Tucker AS, Trainor PA, Schneider RA, Hallgrímsson B, Marcucio RS. in review. Embryonic bauplans and the developmental origins of facial diversity and constraint. Development.
Li X, YOUNG NM, Tropp S, Hu D, Xu Y, Hallgrímsson B, Marcucio RS. in press. Quantification of shape and cell polarity reveals a novel mechanism underlying malformations resulting from related FGF mutations during facial morphogenesis. Human Molecular Genetics.
Smith F, Hu D, YOUNG NM, Lainoff AJ, Jamniczky HA, Maltepe E, Hallgrímsson B, Marcucio RS. 2013. The effect of hypoxia on facial shape variation and disease phenotypes. Disease, Models, and Mechanisms 6:915-924. (DMM Cover Feature and “In this Issue” p. 867)
Chong HJ*, YOUNG NM*, Jeong J, McMahon AP, Hallgrímsson B, Marcucio RS. 2012. Signaling by SHH rescues facial defects following blockade in the brain. Developmental Dynamics 241(2):247-56 (*equal contribution)
Marcucio, RS, YOUNG NM, Hu D, Hallgrímsson B. 2011. Mechanisms that Underlie Co-variation of the Brain and Face. Genesis 49:177-189.
YOUNG NM*, Chong HJ*, Hu D, Hallgrímsson B, Marcucio RS. 2010. Quantitative analyses link modulation of sonic hedgehog signaling to continuous variation in facial growth and shape. Development 137, 3405-3409. (*equal contribution), (Featured as an “Editor’s Choice” in Science 330(6002):296), (evaluated on Faculty of 1000: Trainor P: 2010. www.F1000.com/6227956).
Brugmann SA, Powder K, YOUNG NM, Goodnough LH, Hahn SM, Lovett M, Helms JA. 2010. Comparative gene expression analysis of avian embryonic facial structures reveals new candidates for human craniofacial disorders. Human Molecular Genetics 19(5): 920-930.
Boughner JC, Wat S, Diewert VM, YOUNG NM, Browder LW, Hallgrímsson B. 2008. Short-faced mice and developmental interactions between the brain and the face. Journal of Anatomy. 213(6): 646-662.
YOUNG NM, Wat S, Diewert VM, Browder LW, Hallgrímsson B. 2007. Comparative Morphometrics of Embryonic Facial Morphogenesis: Implications for Cleft-Lip Etiology. Anatomical Record, Part A: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 290(1): 123-139.